Area of jurisdiction: 1,182.3 square kilometres (456.5 sq mi)
Height: 5 meters above sea level
Location: Rio de Janeiro is on the far western part of a strip of Brazil's Atlantic coast (between a strait east to Ilha Grande, on the Costa Verde, and the Cabo), close to the Tropic of Capricorn, where the shoreline is oriented east–west.
Twin city agreement signature date: December 5, 2011.
Rio de Janeiro, or simply Rio, is the second most-populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas.. The metropolis is anchor to the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area, the second-most populous metropolitan area in Brazil and sixth-most populous in the Americas. Rio de Janeiro is the capital of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil`s third-most populous state. Part of the city has been designated as a World Heritage Site, named "Rio de Janeiro: Carioca Landscapes between the Mountain and the Sea", by UNESCO on 1
July 2012 as a Cultural Landscape.
Founded in 1565 by the Portuguese, the city was initially the seat of the Captaincy of Rio de Janeiro, a domain of the Portuguese Empire. Later, in 1763, it became the capital of the State of Brazil, a state of the Portuguese Empire. In 1808, when the Portuguese Royal Court transferred itself from Portugal to Brazil, Rio de Janeiro became the chosen seat of the court of Queen Maria I of Portugal, who subsequently, in 1815, under the leadership of her son, the Prince Regent, and future King Joao VI of Portugal, raised Brazil to the dignity of a kingdom, within the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and Algarves. Rio stayed the capital of the pluricontinental Lusitanian monarchy until 1822, when the War of Brazilian Independence began. This is one of the few instances in history that the capital of a colonising country officially shifted to a city in one of its colonies. Rio de Janeiro subsequently served as the capital of the independent monarchy, the Empire of Brazil, until 1889, and then the capital of a republican Brazil until 1960 when the capital
was transferred to Brasilia.
Rio de Janeiro has the second largest municipal GDP in the country, and 30th largest in the world in 2008, estimated at about 343 billion (IBGE, 2008) (nearly US$201 billion). It is headquarters to Brazilian oil, mining, and telecommunications companies, including two of the country's major corporations—Petrobras and Vale—and Latin America's largest telemedia conglomerate, Grupo Globo. The home of many universities and institutes, it is the second-largest center of research and development in Brazil, accounting
for 17% of national scientific output according to 2005 data.
Rio de Janeiro is one of the most visited cities in the Southern Hemisphere and is known for its natural settings, Carnival, samba, bossa nova, and balneario beaches such as Barra da Tijuca, Copacabana, Ipanema, and Leblon. In addition to the beaches, some of the most famous landmarks include the giant statue of Christ the Redeemer atop Corcovado mountain, named one of the New Seven Wonders of the World; Sugarload Mountain with its cable car; the Sambadrome , a permanent grandstand-lined parade avenue which is used during Carnival; and Maracana Stadium, one of the world`s larges football stadium.
Rio de Janeiro is the host of the 2016 Summer Olympics and the 2016 Summer Paralympics - the first time a South American and a Portuguese-speaking country will host these events, and the third time the Olympics will be held in a Southern Hemisphere city. The Maracanã Stadium held the finals of the 1950 and 2014. FIFA World Cups, the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup, and the XV Pan American Games.
Rio de Janeiro has the second largest GDP of any city in Brazil, surpassed only bySao Paulo. According to the IBGE, it was approximately US$201 billion in 2008, equivalent to 5.1% of the national total. The services sector comprises the largest portion of GDP (65.52%), followed by commerce (23.38%), industrial activities (11.06%) and agriculture (0.04%).
Benefiting from the federal capital position it had for a long period (1763–1960), the city became a dynamic administrative, financial, commercial and cultural center. Greater Rio de Janeiro, as perceived by the IBGE, has a GDP of US$187.374.116.000, constituting the second largest hub of national wealth. Per capita GDP is US$11,786. It concentrates 68% of the state's economic strength and 7.91% of all goods and services produced in the country.
Barra da Tijuca
Taking into consideration the network of influence exerted by the urban metropolis (which covers 11.3% of the population), this share in GDP rises to 14.4%, according to a study released in October 2008 by the IBGE. For many years brings together the second largest industrial hub of Brazil, with oil refineries, shipbuilding industries, steel, metallurgy, petrochemical, gas, chemical, textile, printing, publishing, pharmaceutical, beverages, cement and furniture. However, the last decades indicated a sharp transformation in its economic profile, which is acquiring more and more shades of a major national hub of services and businesses. The Rio de Janeiro Stock Exchange (BVRJ), which currently trades only government securities, was the first stock exchange founded in Brazil in 1845 and located in the central region.
Rio de Janeiro became an attractive place for companies to locate when it was the capital of Brazil, as important sectors of society and of the government were present in the city. The city was chosen as headquarters for state-owned companies such as Petrobras, Eletrobras, Caixa Economica Federal and Vale (which was privatized in the 1990s). After the transfer of the capital to Brasilia, in 1960, it kept attracting more companies, especially after the discovery of oil in the Campos Basin, which produces most of the total oil production of Brazil. This made many oil and gas companies to be based in Rio de Janeiro, such as the Brazilian branches of Shell, EBX, and Esso. The headquarters of BNDES, an important state institution, is also in Rio de Janeiro. The city is also the headquarters of large telecom companies, such as Intelig, Oi and Embratel.
Rio ranks second nationally in industrial production and second financial and
service center, trailing only Sao Paulo. The city's industries produce processed foods, chemicals, petroleum products, pharmaceuticals, metal products, ships, textiles, clothing, and furniture. The service sector dominates the economy, however, and includes banking and the second most active stock market in Brazil, the Bolsa da Valores do Brasil. Tourism and entertainment are other key aspects of the city's economic life and the city is the nation's top tourist attraction for both Brazilians and foreigners.
Rio Branco Avneue, in the financial district of the city
Because it was once the national capital, Rio de Janeiro was chosen as the site for the headquarters of many private, national, multinational, and state corporations, even when their factories were located in other cities or states. Despite the transfer of the capital to Brasília, many of these headquarters remained within the Rio metropolitan area, including those of Petrobras, the state oil company, and the National Economic and Social Development Bank, a federal investment bank.
A newer electronics and computer sector has been added to the older industries of metallurgy, engineering, and printing and publishing. Other manufacturing sectors focus on the production of shipyard-related materials, apparel and footwear, textiles, nonmetallic mineral products, food and beverages, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. Construction, also an important activity, provides a significant source of employment for large numbers of unskilled workers and is buoyed by the number of seasonal residents who build second homes in the Greater Rio de Janeiro area.
To attract industry, the state government has designated certain areas on the outskirts of the city as industrial districts where infrastructure is provided and land sales are made under special conditions. Oil and natural gas from fields off the northern coast of Rio de Janeiro state are a major asset used for developing manufacturing activities in Rio's metropolitan area, enabling it to compete with other major cities for new investment in industry.
As with manufacturing, Rio is an important financial centre, second only to São Paulo in volume of business in financial markets and in banking. Its securities market, although declining in significance relative to São Paulo, is still of major importance. Owing to the proximity of Rio's port facilities, many of Brazil's export-import companies are headquartered in the city. In Greater Rio, which has one of the highest per capita incomes in Brazil, retail trade is substantial. Many of the most important retail stores are located in the Centre, but others are scattered throughout the commercial areas of the other districts, where shopping centres, supermarkets, and other retail businesses handle a large volume of consumer trade.
Treemap showing the market share of exports, by product, for the city of Rio de Janeiro in 2014 generated by DataViva.
Rio de Janeiro is (as of 2014) the second largest exporting municipality in Brazil. Annually, Rio exported a total of $7.49B (USD) worth of goods. The top three goods exported by the municipality were crude petroleum (40%), semi finished iron product (16%), and semi finished steel products (11%). Material categories of mineral products (42%) and metals (29%) make up 71% of all exports from Rio.
Major Brazilian entertainment and media organizations are based in Rio de Janeiro like Organizacoes Globo and also some of Brazil's major newspapers: Jornak do Brasil, O Dia, and Business Rio. Major international pharmaceutical companies have their Brazilian headquarters in Rio such as: Merck, Roche, Arrow, Darrow, Baxter, Mayne, and Mappel.
Compared to other cities, Rio de Janeiro's economy is the 2nd largest in Brazil, behind Sao Paulo, , and the 30th largest in the world with a GDP of R$ 201,9 billion in 2010. The per capita income for the city was R$22,903 in 2007 (around US$14,630). Mercer`s city rankings of cost living for expatriate employees. According to Mercer`s city rankings of cost of living for expatriate employees, , Rio de Janeiro ranks 12th among the most expensive cities in the world in 2011, up from the 29th position in 2010, just behind São Paulo (ranked 10th), and ahead of London, Paris, Milan, and New York City. Rio also has the most expensive hotel rates in Brazil, and the daily rate of its five star hotels are the second most expensive in the world after only NYC.
The bustling city of Rio de Janeiro has been one of Brazil’s most popular and frequented tourist destinations for decades. Its vibrant city centre is bursting with culture and pulsating with a deep sense of history and heritage. Rio, as it is commonly known, is the second largest city in Brazil and the third largest metropolis in the whole of South America.
It is the most visited city in the Southern Hemisphere, which is no mean feat. This makes for an impressive, memorable attraction for visitors from all over the world.
Botafogo bay - Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Rio de Janeiro is hot for most of the year, and rain is frequent during the period between December and March. The coastal areas are cooler than those situated inland due to the cool breeze blowing off the blue waters of the Atlantic Ocean. The average annual temperature is between 21 and 27 degrees Celsius. The landscape and vegetation in and around this metropolis are magnificent, providing a visual feast that has inspired authors and screenwriters the world over.
Because of its many cultural and historical attractions, Rio has implemented fabulous infrastructure to cater to the needs of its visitors. This includes world-class accommodation and plenty of tours. Rio de Janeiro is set to be one of the Host Cities™ for the 2014 FIFA World Cup™, welcoming millions of people as they make their way to this international sporting event. In addition, it will host the 2016 Summer Olympics™, inviting sportsmen and –women, as well as their millions of fans, to focus their attention on this bustling destination. Major efforts have been made to minimise social inequality and modernise the economy of Rio de Janeiro to further improve its global standing. This makes for a very special destination.
During your time in Rio, you are urged to see the following fabulous attractions:
The incredible surfing waves off Prainha. Whether you conquer them yourself or just watch the water-bound athletes skimming effortlessly over and under them, these waves are impressive.
Tijuca’s lush, dense rainforests, which boast a number of hiking trails for those wanting to experience the fauna and flora first hand.
Laze on the shores of Ipanema Beach or one of the many other beaches for which this city is renowned.
Marvel at the sheer scale of the statue of Christ the Redeemer as it overlooks the city far below.
Take the cable car up Sugarloaf Mountain for spectacular views.
Stroll down the famous Avenue Nossa Senhora de Copacabana.
Take an official walking tour of Rio, learning fascinating facts about its historical and modern-day heritage.
Wander amongst the more than 5 000 species of plants and trees at the Jardim Botânico (Botanical Garden). The palm species alone exceed 900.
Sports enthusiasts simply must experience the Maracanã stadium, which seats 100 000 spectators and has been the venue of many a heart-stopping match between international football greats.